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See Joseph R. William Burch d.


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Appeal to the World , Ann Burch d. Writing about this incident, Samuel Adams later offered a rare gender perspective on the British imperial elite:. It has been usual for the Commisioners to affect an Apprehension of Danger to themselves and their Families, to serve the purposes they had in View.

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There is indeed no accounting for the real Fears of Women and children. And it is said that all are Politicians in this Country: Whether this lady, whom Gov.

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Bernard has politely ushered into the View of the Public, really thought herself in Danger or not, it is incumbent on him to show that there were just Grounds for her Apprehensions. It is possible that the Boston selectmen mentioned in the source note to No. Stephen Greenleaf , sheriff of Suffolk County from to The minute of the Council meeting of 18 Mar. Nor does the minute aid identification of the speakers to whom FB refers. On this point Harbottle Dorr added the following annotation to his copy of Letters to the Ministry 1st ed. The British Coffee House. The other inn mentioned here was probably the Bunch of Grapes Tavern, frequented by leading Whigs and province lawyers.

Both were situated in King Street. Bernard has the Art in Perfection. On this wider issue see Reid, In a Defiant Stance. The exact date is uncertain. In total, perhaps a week separated the two events. In referring to their memorial of 12 Feb. Appendix 3. From the Portuguese island of Faial in the Azores archipelago.


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Nonimportation was first proposed at a town meeting on 28 Oct. See notes 6 and 7 below. The agreement was to take effect on 1 Jun. One hundred and sixty-six Boston firms were asked to subscribe over half the total number in the town but nearly one-third either did not subscribe or stipulated conditions. Nevertheless, by the end of April, only eight firms still refused to sign and thirteen others continued to insist on conditions. On 28 Oct.

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The resolves further urged domestic production of those goods subject to the Townsend duties which could be produced in the colonies: glass and paper. The subscription attracted signatories, men and women from across the social spectrum, for which see the printed copy with signatures in the Houghton Library, AB7. The New York merchants adopted nonimportation on 27 Aug. In October, local Whigs and townspeople occupied the building to prevent it being converted into a barracks for British troops. The emergence of retailers as importing merchants, sustained by British credit, opened up a major fault line between shopkeepers many of whom were recently arrived from Britain and wholesale merchants including prominent Whigs ; the former accused the latter of using nonimportation to drive them from the market in British dry goods.

This conflict of interest was at the heart of local disputes over the continuation and enforcement of the nonimportation agreements until the fall of Boston Gazette , 21 Mar , p. The House of Representatives to Shelburne, 15 Jan. Stephen Sewall , chief justice of the Massachusetts Superior Court, The first was prompted by petitions from Thomas Lechmere, surveyor general of Customs, and officers including Charles Paxton, whose applications for writs were being challenged by the Boston merchants.

The hearing commenced on Tuesday 24 Feb. Judgment was delayed while Chief Justice Hutchinson sought guidance and advice from Britain. The second hearing took place on Wednesday 18 Nov. Michael Francklin had been appointed lieutenant governor of Nova Scotia in and had assisted FB and his partners obtain land grants in the St. Croix Bay area. Coquillette and Neil Longley York, eds.

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The Law Reports, Part One , American Board of Customs to the Treasury, 3 Jun. The first two are Nos. Hillsborough refused to present the petition to the king. Benjamin Pickman was a wealthy Salem merchant and colonel of the militia. John Nutting , originally of Cambridge, was a carpenter by trade and a master builder of some renown by the time of the Revolution, employing some fifty men. He was evidently seeking some redress from the American Board of Customs.

A future Loyalist, Nutting nevertheless tried to live out the war peacefully in Salem, but was obliged to leave after protests by angry neighbors in , and he played a leading role in the failed British attempt to establish the Loyalist colony of New Ireland in Maine, between and Nathaniel Ropes had been a member of the Council since and chief justice of the Essex County superior court since The idea of American representation in Parliament was more popular in Britain than Barrington implies.


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Thomas Pownall was probably its most prominent advocate following discussion in The Administration of the American Colonies 4th ed. Robert Chamier was probably a kinsman of Anthony Chamier , a financial adviser to the British government. Connected by marriage to Thomas Bradshaw , secretary to the Treasury from , Anthony Chamier acquired a succession of government positions with the assistance of Barrington, whom he served as deputy secretary-at-war His older brother Thomas had graduated in Lammas was the annual harvest festival of 1 Aug.

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Pownall probably discussed the role of Benjamin Franklin in his letter of 3 Sep. They may have been added by FB. The docket description is in the hand of Thomas Bernard and was probably added at a later date. The best account of these deliberations is Thomas, Townshend Duties Crisis, , quotation at The vessel carrying the dispatches arrived on Wednesday 11 May. See Appendices 2 and 3.

The Virginia governorship was a sinecure and the governor often an absentee, with the actual duties carried out by the lieutenant governor. The present governor was Sir Jeffrey Amherst , but Amherst had left the American Colonies in without ever attending to his duties as governor, leaving Lt. Francis Fauquier to continue as acting governor, a role which he had filled since The governorship was eventually filled by the appointment of Norborne Berkeley c. The salaries of the American Board of Customs were paid in this way, but not governors and lieutenant governors who continued to rely upon annual provincial grants.

Important revisions were made to this practice from onwards, for which see the source note to No. BP, ; No. Hillsborough assumed the office of secretary of the state for the Colonies on 21 Jan. FB knew of the appointment by 21 Feb. Province Secretary Andrew Oliver had been punctual in observing this requirement. See Bernard Papers , 3: 13, 90, —, , Appendix 2 and No. Read in the House of Representatives, 4 Mar. That is, FB refused to recognize the authority of the House-appointed agent, Dennys DeBerdt, who had previously been given responsibility for representing the province in settling the boundary with New Hampshire.

For an explanation see Bernard Papers , 3: See Bernard Papers , 3: 31, , —, , , —, , , FB is referring to the initial reluctance of many Boston merchants to embrace nonimportation and sustain domestic manufacturing, which agreement would take effect on 1 Jun. For judicious accounts see Catherine S.

See John C. MHS : Dated Whitehall, 20 Feb. The Board of Trade had already requested the information No. Three shillings per day was equivalent to the average weekly wage of an unskilled laborer. Gary B. While the nonimportation subscription was offered to merchants and shopkeepers in March, other Bostonians had already demonstrated their commitment to the protest movement by signing the nonconsumption agreement of 28 Oct.

James Otis Sr. These friends of government had probably undertaken to write to the secretary of state, for they were not in a position to persuade the House or assembly to petition the king. Nathaniel Sparhawk , who served in the Council until See Bernard Papers , 3: n7.

A majority, as TH noted, was 71 votes, but he was three votes short, as FB here observes. It was probably an experiment intended to ascertain the colonial reaction. It was first reported in the Boston newspapers on 11 Apr.