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In these all the points denied by Lucaris's "Confession" Church and Bible, predestination , cult.

Before of the Crusades: 350 - 1095

A short epilogue closes the acts. Then follow the date, signatures, and seals. Because of its determined anti-Protestantism Protestants are described as being patently heretics and airetikon koryphaiotatoi , Protestant writers have described this synod as a work of the Jesuits , of the French ambassador at that time, Olivier de Nointel, and of other Catholics who were undermining the Eastern Church.

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It is all the more remarkable that its decrees have been accepted unreservedly by the whole Orthodox Church. They were at once approved by the other patriarchs , the Church of Russia , etc. An affair that concerned the Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem was that of the independence of the great monastery of Mount Sinai. This monastery , one of the richest and most famous of Eastern Christendom , was undoubtedly at one time subject to the jurisdiction of the Patriarch of Jerusalem.

In , after a great struggle, the Abbot of Mount Sinai succeeded in asserting his independence of any patriarch. As Archbishop of Sinai the abbot now reigns over the smallest autocephalous Church of their communion. But he is still ordained in Jerusalem , and the patriarchs have constantly tried to assert some kind of authority over their independent daughter-church. The last great quarrel was in , when the archbishop Cyril Byzantius had a dispute with his monks.

Instead of applying to Jerusalem he wrote to Constantinople for help. Sophronius III of Constantinople at once took up his cause against the monks. The Patriarch of Jerusalem then summoned a synod , in which he protested hotly against the interference of Constantinople. Less for the sake of Jerusalem's shadowy rights over Sinai than because of the ever-welcome chance of opposing the arrogant interference of Constantinople, the other Orthodox Churches all supported Jerusalem , so that Byzantius was deposed and the Patriarch of Constantinople had to resign. But that is the last attempt made by Jerusalem to interfere in the affairs of what is now universally recognized as the autocephalous Church of Sinai.

During these centuries the patriarchate , never very rich, suffered from steadily increasing poverty. Dositheus complained bitterly of this. He says that pilgrimages are rarer, and that the pilgrims who do come bring little money; he himself is obliged to travel constantly for the sake of collecting alms to Constantinople, Russia , Moldavia, etc. A result of the Turkish conquest was that since the Patriarchs of Jerusalem have been subject to their brothers of Constantinople in civil matters, as far as the government is concerned. The Turks made the ecumenical Patriarch civil head of all the "Roman nation" rum millet , that is the Orthodox Church.


The other patriarchs can approach the Porte only through him. This civil authority must not be confused with ecclesiastical jurisdiction. In Orthodox canon law the Church of Jerusalem is autocephalous, having no superior authority but that of Christ and the Seven Councils. Jerusalem , like the other free branches of their communion, has always indignantly withstood the many attempts of Constantinople to assert a kind of papal authority, and has always upheld the axiom that that ecumenical bishop has no ecclesiastical jurisdiction outside his patriarchate. Nevertheless, during these centuries till quite modern times, the independence of Jerusalem was only theoretical.

The patriarchs were all Greeks. Originally, under the Egyptian rule, they had been Arabs , taken naturally from the native clergy of Palestine. But in Germanus, a Greek of the Peloponnesus, succeeded in being elected and from that time to this his successors have all been Greeks. Germanus further succeeded in hellenizing all the administration of his patriarchate : the monks of the Holy Sepulchre, the bishops , archimandrites , and officials of the patriarchal court are all Greeks. It became a recognized principle that no native Arab should ever be appointed to any office in the patriarchate.

The result of this is that for over three centuries the patriarchal curia of Jerusalem has been and remains a foreign colony in the land, utterly separate from the native Arab lower clergy and the people. But this state of things will soon come to an end. Following the triumphant example of Antioch there is at this moment a great agitation among the Orthodox Arabs to assert their place in their own patriarchate. And as they are supported by Russia they will succeed.

The reigning patriarch, Damianus, though of course a Greek, is not unfriendly to the Arab agitators. On the other hand the monks , the "Fraternity of the Holy Sepulchre", stand out as a bulwark of Orthodoxy for the present state of things, and treat the Arabs as schismatical revolutionaries. Everyone has heard of the scandalous riots that took place in , and culminated in the pretended deposition of the patriarch.

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Till quite lately, moreover, most of these Greek patriarchs did not even take the trouble to reside in their titular city. Mere servants of the oecumenical bishop , having no interest in their Arab flock, they were content to fritter away their lives in Constantinople, useless ornaments of the Phanar. Since the accession of Cyril II , this abuse has been removed and the patriarchs live near the Monastery of the Holy Sepulchre. Meanwhile the sees of the patriarchate have almost entirely disappeared. In Juvenal's time fifty-nine bishops in the three Palestines obeyed the new patriarch. The Moslem conquest, the Crusades , and the other troubles of the Orthodox Church in Syria gradually reduced this number, till there are now only a handful of titular bishops who reside at Jerusalem instead of in their dioceses , and a few sees whose titles are registered but are always vacant.

In only one bishop the Metropolitan of 'Akka lived in his diocese see the list below. The last-mentioned refused to sign the excommunication of the Bulgars in , and was deposed the same year. Procopius was intruded while Cyril still claimed to be patriarch. Russia and the native Arabs acknowledged Cyril, the Phanar and nearly all the rest of the Orthodox world Procopius.

Russia deposed Procopius in , and Cyril died. Russia then appointed Hierotheus , who, however, to everyone's surprise took the side of the Phanar in the Bulgarian quarrel. So Russia fell foul of him, and took the opportunity of confiscating the property of the Holy Sepulchre in Bessarabia. Hierotheus died in There were then three candidates for the vacant see, Nicodemus, Gerasimus and Photius. Photius always a determined enemy of Russia was elected canonically. But the Russians made the sultan refuse him the berat , and give it to Nicodemus instead. Gerasimus became Patriarch of Antioch in Photius went back to his monastery at Sinai.

Nicodemus reigned from to In the Phanar persuaded the sultan to depose Nicodemus, and give the berat to Photius. Nicodemus retired to Halki.

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But the Russians absolutely refused to allow Photius to become patriarch. So the third original candidate, Gerasimus, was persuaded to leave Antioch and come to Jerusalem. He reigned from to Photius became Metropolitan of Nazareth , and in Patriarch of Alexandria. Gerasimus died in and the Russians tried to have their candidate Euthymius, Archimandrite of the Holy Sepulehre, appointed.

But the candidate of the Phanar, Damianus, Metropolitan of Philadelphia, was appointed in For further information about the Orthodox patriarchate see below. Arnulf, chaplain of the Normans, was made administrator of this patriarchate by the synod held in Jerusalem at Christmas , But he was soon set aside because of his immoral life, and Dagobert, Archbishop of Pisa , elected patriarch.

The line of Latin patriarchs is: Dagobert of Pisa , Ehremar, anti-patriarch set up by Baldwin I while Dagobert was travelling to Rome to answer the king's complaints ; Ghibellin of Arles, ; Arnulf the original administrator , ; Guarimund, ; Stephen, ; William, ; Fulcher, ; Amalric, ; Heraclius, From this time the Latin patriarchs resided at the court of the Latin kings; when that court was at 'Akka during the last period of the kingdom the patriarchate was united to the bishopric of that town Ptolemais in Latin.

Albert of Parma d. Since 'Akka fell in , the Latin line was continued by merely titular patriarchs , living at Rome and using the basilica of St.

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Laurence without the Walls as their patriarchal church, till Pius III restored the real patriarchate at Jerusalem in The patriarchs of the crusading time were in most cases not very edifying persons. Much of the history of the Latin Kingdom is taken up with their quarrels with the kings, intrigues, and generally scandalous adventures. An amusing, if hostile account of these intrigues will be found in Besant and Palmer's "Jerusalem" throughout the book. The patriarchate extended to the limits of the Crusaders' territory; as they conquered new cities, so were new Latin sees established.

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Jean d'Acre, Sidon , Beirut , Paneas. Bethlehem and Ascalon joined , Hebron and Lydda Diospolis were immediately subject to the patriarch.